'The Pope's Mad Bull', 1865. At the end of 1864, Pope Pius IX had issued an Encyclical Letter that itemised all the practices and beliefs of the modern world previously condemned by his holiness. Given space within this list were such things as liberty of worship, freedom of the press, science, state education, progress, liberalism and modern civilisation. This caused concern amongst Catholics and outrage amongst non-Catholics. Hence Punch's depiction of the Papal 'Bull', winded after running headlong into a brick wall. From Punch, or the London Charivari, January 7, 1865.
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