Clifton Suspension Bridge, Clifton, Bristol, c1955-c1980. View across the Clifton Suspension Bridge, taken from the road and looking east, showing a partial view of the Clifton Observatory in the distance. The image has been taken close to the central span chains on the right, showing the underside of two of the six chains that comprise the central span, and the suspension rods that connect them to the deck below. Each rod is connected 2.4 metres apart. The central chains can be seen rising up towards the east tower on both sides of the deck, with the pedestrian walkways on their far sides. On the outer side of the walkway are parapets with an iron lattice that provides extra strengthening to the structure, and people walking on both sides of the bridge. At the far end of the bridge is the east tower, built with sandstone rubble, with caps and limestone dressings, and a large open arch above the road. The Clifton Suspension Bridge was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who had submitted his design proposal to a competition, as well as three other proposals. Construction began on 27 August 1836, but funds had run out by 1843. Brunel died in September 1859, and in 1860 the Institute of Civil Engineers formed a company to complete the bridge as a memorial to Brunel. The chains from Brunel's earlier Hungerford Suspension Bridge were re-used in the construction, as it had been demolished in 1860, and the Clifton bridge was opened on 8 December 1864.